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BLADDER CANCER



The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional, or urothelial, cell carcinoma, which originates in the urothelial cells which cover the inside of the bladder. Urothelial cells are transitional and able to change shape and stretch when the bladder is full. Other types of bladder cancer are squamous cell carcinoma (originates in the thin, flat cells which cover the bladder) and adenocarcinoma (originates in the cells which produce and release mucus and other liquids).

Tobacco smokers are at higher risk of developing bladder cancer and exposure to certain chemical products and chronic bladder infections can also increase the risk.

Our goal is to achieve the best treatment for bladder cancer according to the genetic characteristics of each patient’s tumor.
 
 


SYMPTOMS of bladder cancer
Bladder cancer or other conditions can cause these and other signs and symptoms:
  • Blood in the urine (light rusty or bright red color).
  • Frequent urination.
  • Pain during urination.

DIAGNOSTIC TESTS to detect bladder cancer
To diagnose bladder cancer, any of the following tests and procedures that examine the urine and bladder may be used:
  • Physical examination and review of medical history.
  • Internal examination.
  • Urine analysis.
  • Urine cytology.
  • Cystoscopy.
  • Intravenous pyelogram (IVP).
  • Biopsy.

TREATMENTS for bladder cancer
Different types of standard treatment are available for patients with bladder cancer: surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, biological therapy.

New types of treatment are being investigated in clinical trials.

Bladder cancer in the early stages can often be cured. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on the following factors: the stage of the cancer (whether it is superficial, or invasive and has spread to other parts of the body), the type of bladder cancer cells (and their appearance under a microscope), whether carcinoma in situ is found in other parts of the bladder, the patient’s age and general state of health.

If the cancer is superficial, the prognosis also depends on the following: the amount of tumor present, the size of the tumor, whether the tumor has recurred (come back) after previous treatment.