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BREAST CANCER


Breast cancer is most frequently detected in women; it can also occur in men, but is much less common.

The most common type is ductal carcinoma, which originates in the cells of the thin tubes known as ducts. Breast cancer can also originate in the lobular cells (glands that produce milk) and other breast tissues. Ductal carcinoma in situ is a type of breast cancer where abnormal cells are found in the lining of the ducts but which has not spread beyond the duct. Breast cancer which has spread from the original site in the ducts or lobules to surrounding tissues is known as invasive breast cancer. In the case of inflammatory breast cancer, the breast is red and swollen and feels hot because the cancerous cells block the lymph vessels.

There are several different types of breast cancer according to the genetic alterations which drive tumor growth and each has a different prognosis and treatment.
Our goal is to achieve the best personalized treatment for breast cancer according to the genetic characteristics of each patient’s tumor.

SYMPTOMS of breast cancer
Breast cancer or other conditions may cause these and other symptoms:
  • Lump or thickening in the breast or surrounding area, or in the area of the armpit.
  • Changes in the size or shape of the breast.
  • Dimple or wrinkle in the skin of the breast, including ‘orange peel’ skin.
  • Inverted nipple.
  • Excretion of fluid other than breast milk from the nipple, especially if bloody.
  • Scaly skin, red or swollen breast, nipple or areola.

DIAGNOSTIC TESTS to detect breast cancer
To diagnose breast cancer, tests that examine the breasts are performed. In addition, it is recommended that, after a certain age, women undergo regular mammograms to reduce the risk of breast cancer. Any of the following test or procedures may be performed:
  • Physical examination and review of medical history.
  • Clinical breast exam (CBE).
  • Mammogram.
  • Ultrasound.
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).
  • Biochemical studies of blood.
  • Biopsy.

TREATMENTS for breast cancer
Different types of standard treatment are available for patients with breast cancer: surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy.

New types of treatment are being investigated in clinical trials.

In recent years, advances in surgery have been made that allow for localized treatment of the cancer and conservation of the breast. For example, a lumpectomy rather than full mastectomy.

Following conservative surgery, treatment with radiotherapy is required to remove any residual tumor cells and prevent local relapse. This treatment is normally applied daily for several sessions over two to seven weeks, irradiating the entire mammary gland.